BCLP At Work

BCLP At Work

Other Posts

Main Content

CORONAVIRUS RELIEF BILL: The CARES Act – Provisions Affecting U.S. Employers and Employees, Part II

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act” or “Act”), enacted on March 27, 2020, has been the subject of government agency interim regulations and guidance.  This updates the original BCLP post on the employment-related provisions of the CARES Act through April 7, 2020.

The CARES Act represents the third Phase of Congressional relief responding to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.  Phase I (Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2020 (P.L. 116-123)) and Phase II (Families First Coronavirus Response Act (P.L. 116-127)) were signed into law on March 6 and 18, respectively.   At 883 pages, the CARES Act is the largest relief bill in U.S. history and addresses on multiple fronts the hardships faced by individuals and businesses throughout this crisis.  These efforts include an unprecedented expansion of unemployment benefits, significant funding for the health care industry, aid to large and small businesses valued in the billions, and even direct payments to individuals.

The majority of economic relief provisions for U.S. workers and employers is provided in Titles I through IV of Division A of the Act (Division B consists of emergency appropriations to fund various program). The CARES Act also has specific provisions regarding relief for airlines, financial institutions, and other sectors that are considered critical to national security.  The three key employment-related sections of the CARES Act, two of which are designed to incentivize employers to retain employees and continue to provide them wages by way of either providing smaller employers with loans, or

CORONAVIRUS RELIEF BILL: The CARES Act – Provisions Affecting U.S. Employers and Employees, Part I

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act” or “Act”), enacted on March 27, 2020, has been the subject of government agency interim regulations and guidance.  This updates the original BCLP post on the employment-related provisions of the CARES Act through April 7, 2020.

The CARES Act represents the third Phase of Congressional relief responding to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.  Phase I (Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2020 (P.L. 116-123)) and Phase II (Families First Coronavirus Response Act (P.L. 116-127)) were signed into law on March 6 and 18, respectively.   At 883 pages, the CARES Act is the largest relief bill in U.S. history and addresses on multiple fronts the hardships faced by individuals and businesses throughout this crisis.  These efforts include an unprecedented expansion of unemployment benefits, significant funding for the health care industry, aid to large and small businesses valued in the billions, and even direct payments to individuals.

The majority of economic relief provisions for U.S. workers and employers is provided in Titles I through IV of Division A of the Act (Division B consists of emergency appropriations to fund various program). The CARES Act also has specific provisions regarding relief for airlines, financial institutions, and other sectors that are considered critical to national security.  The three key employment-related sections of the CARES Act, two of which are designed to incentivize employers to retain employees and continue to provide them wages by way of either providing smaller employers with loans, or

Comparing Paid Sick Leave under U.S. and New York State Coronavirus Response Laws

The federal Families First Coronavirus Response Act (“FFCRA”), enacted March 18, 2020, and effective April 1, 2020, provides for two types of leave for employees of private employers with fewer than 500 employees: Paid Sick Leave (for six specified reasons related to COVID-19) and Emergency Family and Medical Leave Act (“EFMLA”) leave (to care for an employee’s son or daughter whose school or child-care facility is closed, or child care provider is unavailable, due to a public health emergency).

The New York State Paid Quarantine Leave Law (“NY Quarantine Law”), enacted and effective March 18, 2020, provides for sick leave when an employee is subject to a mandatory or precautionary governmental quarantine or isolation order due to COVID-19 (“Quarantine Order”).  Under the NY Quarantine Law, employers with 1-10 employees and $1,000,000 or less in net income in the previous tax year (Tier 1)  must provide unpaid sick leave for the duration of the Quarantine Order; employers with 11-99 employees and employers with 1-10 employees and a net income greater than $1 million in the previous tax year (Tier 2) must provide at least 5 days of paid sick leave plus unpaid sick leave for the duration of the Quarantine Order; and employers with 100 or more employees, as well as all public employers (regardless of number of employees) (Tier 3) must provide at least 14 days of paid sick leave. The legislative history of the law indicates that only employees who work in New York should be counted to determine employer obligations.

What Employers Need to Know about New York State’s New Discrimination and Harassment Laws: Part 2

On June 19, 2019, the New York Legislature voted to reform New York discrimination law. See NYS Assembly Bill No. A8421.  Although Governor Andrew Cuomo is expected to sign the bill, as of August 7, 2019, it still has not been delivered to him.

This post will focus on changes regarding mandatory arbitration and non-disclosure clauses, the Faragher-Ellerth defense and damages awards.  Below is a summary of some of the provisions in the bill including those covered by our prior post on the expansion of the New York State Human Rights Law (“NYSHRL”), and the effective date of each provision.

What Employers Need to Know about New York State’s New Discrimination and Harassment Laws

In 2018, in response to the #MeToo and #TimesUp movements, New York State enacted laws to provide stronger protections against workplace sexual harassment, including mandating that New York employers have a complaint and investigation process and a sexual harassment policy, and provide their employees with training.

On June 19, 2019, the New York Legislature voted to further reform New York law and to extend protections under the New York State Human Rights Law (“NYSHRL”) to employees of all protected categories from all forms of discriminatory harassment in the workplace.  See NYS Assembly Bill No. A8421.  The bill is expected to be signed by Governor Andrew Cuomo, who supported the measure.

Once enacted, some provisions will take immediate effect while others will be phased in over the course of one year.  Here is the timeline for some of the provisions:

NYC Lactation Policies Going into Effect on March 18, 2019

In October 2018, the New York City Council passed two bills, Int. 879-2018 and Int. 905-2018, to supplement existing federal and state laws concerning lactation accommodation policies in the workplace.  Currently, New York State Labor Law Section 2016-c  mandates employers to provide employees with a reasonable number of breaks; and a private sanitary space, other than a restroom, with a chair and flat surface on which to place the breast pump and other personal items, to express breast milk during the workday.

Effective March 18, 2019, Int. 879-2018 requires NYC employers, with four or more employees, to provide lactation rooms[1] with an electrical outlet, as well as refrigerators, in reasonable proximity to work areas, for the purposes of expressing and storing breast milk.  Those employers who cannot provide a lactation room, as required under the new law because of undue hardship, are required to engage in cooperative dialogue with affected employees to find a reasonable, alternative accommodation.

The second measure, Int. 905-2018 requires employers to “establish, and distribute to all new employees, policies describing lactation room accommodations, including the process by which an employee can request such accommodation”.  The policy shall: (1) specify how an employee can submit a request for a lactation room; (2) require the employer to respond to such a request no later than five (5) business days; (3) provide a procedure to follow when two (2) or more individuals need to use the lactation room at the same time,

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act Impacts Settlements of Sexual Harassment and Abuse Claims

January 5, 2018

Categories

The recently enacted Tax Cuts and Jobs Act eliminated a business expense deduction for settlements of sexual harassment and sexual abuse claims that are subject to confidentiality restrictions.  Specifically, a “settlement or payment related to sexual harassment or sexual abuse,” and the “attorney’s fees related to such a settlement or payment,” are no longer a deductible business expense “if such settlement or payment is subject to a nondisclosure agreement.” IRC §162(q) (added to the IRC by §13307 of the TCJA).  Section 13307 became effective on December 22, 2017.

This new Code provision raises many questions, which the IRS has not yet addressed, including:

What is the impact of IRC §162(q) on the settlement process for sexual harassment or sexual abuse claims?

Employers will need to weigh the additional costs of a nondisclosure provision, which include the tax on the settlement payment and related attorney’s fees, and the value of a nondisclosure provision to the employer with respect to the specific claim asserted by an employee.  Rather than “boilerplate” in a settlement or separation agreement, nondisclosure provisions will need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis.

Attorneys for both employers and employees will need to track time separately for “attorney’s fees related to such a settlement,” since an employer may determine that a nondisclosure provision is an essential term of the settlement, and then neither the employer’s nor the employee’s attorneys’ fees related to the settlement will be deductible.

What attorney’s fees are “related to such a settlement”?

Certain fees appear

Other Perspectives on Trends in Employee Noncompetition Agreements

In mid-May, the New York Times published a long article reporting a national trend that employers are expanding both the number of employees who are required to sign non-competition agreements and the types of employees required to sign these agreements.  The article emphasized stories of low-paid, low-level employees who could not find a new job, or had to take a lower paying job, because they signed a non-competition agreement.  The Times ran an editorial that urged legislatures to prohibit employers from restricting the employment opportunities of lower paid employees.

What is missing from this picture?

While the Times article mentioned states vary in enforcement of non-competition restrictions, noting that California prohibits all restrictions on employees moving to new jobs, it did not explain the important differences in how states other than California enforce non-competition restrictions.  The Times article also did not report the damage to a business that may result from an employee’s taking advantage of trade secrets learned while working for the former employer, or of customer relationships that were entrusted, to compete unfairly with the former employer.

We asked a few of our non-competition attorneys for their perspectives on some of the questions raised by the Times article: Why do companies require lower-level employees to sign non-competition agreements? How typical is it for companies to seek to enforce those agreements for lower-level employees?  How do courts in each state respond to those enforcement efforts?

Arizona

Under Arizona law, restrictive covenants are disfavored and are construed narrowly by

The attorneys of Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner make this site available to you only for the educational purposes of imparting general information and a general understanding of the law. This site does not offer specific legal advice. Your use of this site does not create an attorney-client relationship between you and Bryan Cave LLP or any of its attorneys. Do not use this site as a substitute for specific legal advice from a licensed attorney. Much of the information on this site is based upon preliminary discussions in the absence of definitive advice or policy statements and therefore may change as soon as more definitive advice is available. Please review our full disclaimer.